Convicts Martin Peeling

Convict: Stephen Martin [1748-1829]

Relationship: Direct Ancestor, 6th Great Grandfather


c1748: Birth

Stephen’s birth location is currently unknown; however, his marriage to Hannah Peeling and his death record suggests he was born in 1748. It is quite possible that he was born in or around Bristol, given that was the location of his first criminal offence.

31st May 1780: Brothers Stephen and William find themselves in Court for stealing two chests of Tea1

City of Bristol and County of the same City

The information of John Sartain James son of William James of the City of Bristol Carrier

Who on his oath said that the two persons in custody giving their names William Martin and Stephen Martin was about a week since hired as porters or laborers to assist at the informant’s father’s warehouses in the Parish of Saint Philips and Jacob in this city. And said that yesterday morning one Moore and Watchman in the said Parish came to this informant and told him he had seen two men carry a chest and a bag out of the upper yard of this informant’s fathers situated in Jacob Street whereupon this informant caused several chests of tea which had been brought to Bristol and deposited in a warehouse of this informant’s father situate in and under the same roof as this informant’s fathers dwelling house is situate to be examined. Their number counted and having upon such counting missed the two such cases he suspected said Martins of having taken the same not only from the circumstances related as above by the Watchman but also on account of their being about to leave his father’s service after having been there in such short time as a week. And said he thereupon charged said William Martin with taking such two chests from the warehouse in his said fathers dwelling house where they had been deposited as aforesaid who immediately acknowledged that his brother said Stephen Martin has proposed taking the said tea and that on the last Monday evening while the other servants of his father were at supper said Stephen Martin removed and took such two chests of tea from the warehouse aforesaid and removed same into a warehouse in Jacob Street where said William Martin acknowledged they hid and secreted same in the … and that on the next morning at four o’clock at having emptied the tea of one such chest into a bag and covered the other with a bag they carried such chest and bag with tea therein to the warehouse of W. Somerton carrier at the Lamb in Broadmead Bristol. And further said that he thereupon caused the said Stephen Martin and William Martin to both apprehended and immediately after went to search said Somerton’s wagon with some canvas and a bag of tea with the following directions thereon for Mr. John Marshall to be left at the coach and horses, Meecham [Beenham?] near Newbury, Berkshire, which chest this informant said was one of those taken out of his father’s dwelling house and that the original mark thereon was covered with canvas. And said that such two chests of tea are the value of sixty pounds and that after having received such information from the Watchman and apprehended said Stephen Martin he acknowledged having assisted in taking and carrying such tea from out of the farmhouse where they were originally deposited so part and parcel of his said father’s dwelling house. This informant said that said William Martin privately and feloniously such two cases of tea in the dwelling house of said William James.

Sworn before me, Thomas Harris, John Sartain James

June 1780: Stephen and William are held at Newgate Gaol, Bristol2

Calendar of all the Prisoners in his Majesty’s Gaol of Newgate in the City of Bristol and County of the same City for Felony and other Criminal Matters this … day of June 1780

Stephen Martin and William Martin

Committed May 31st, 1780 by the Worshipful Robert Gordon Esq. Alderman, being charged on Oath with having feloniously stolen two chests of tea of the value of 60 pounds of the goods of William James within this City and County.

17th July 1781: William’s death in Prison3

An Inquest on the body of William Martin

July 17th, 1781

Visitation Dei

City and County of Bristol

To wit,

An Inquisition indented taken for our Sovereign Lord George the Third by the Grace of God of Great Britain France and Ireland King Defender of the Faith and so forth on the Seventh Day of July in the year of our lord One Thousand Seven Hundred and Eighty One at His Majesty’s Gaol of Newgate in the said city and county before Joseph Safford the younger one of the coroners of our said lord the King for the said City and County on view of the body of William Martin then and there lying dead upon the oaths of divers good and lawful men, that is to say Benjamin Brown, Joseph Price, Joseph Simpson, John Rose Kieley, John Crawley, John Ward, John Harris, Henry Clark, William Jenkins, Joseph Farrell, Edward Payne and Richard Jefferys duly chosen and who being then and there duly sworn and charged to inquire for our said lord the king how and what manner the said William Martin came to his death do upon their respective oaths present and say that the said William Martin for some time before did labour and languish under a grievous disease of body to wit the Small Pox and that on the aforesaid seventeenth day of July in the year aforesaid in the gaol aforesaid departed this life by the visitation of God in a natural way that is to say of the said disease and not by any violent means whatever.

In witness whereof as with the said Coroner as the said Jurors have hereunto interchangeably set their hands and seals the day year and place first mentioned above.

Joseph Safford, Coroner

13th March 1783: Court appearance for stealing a pair of boots and spurs4

Payne & Martin, Information, Felony in Gaol Sessions, Boots and Spurs

City and County of Bristol

The information of Henry Payne, Yeoman near Pipers Lane in the Parish of Ashcott, Robert  Harman, Yeoman, and Thomas Winton, Victualler at the Union, St. James Back

And first, the informant Henry Payne on his Oath said that yesterday morning he lost out of the Queens Head Inn in this City the pair of boots and steel spurs now produced which are of the value of ten shillings. And the informant Robert Harman on his oath said that on searching the pockets of the person now present giving his name Stephen Martin he found the said spurs. And the informant Thomas Winton on his oath said that yesterday the said Stephen Martin came to this informant’s house in Pithay in this City and offered the said boots for sale but this informant not choosing to buy the same left them at his house.

15th March 1783: Newgate Gaol5

A Calendar of all the Prisoners in his Majesty’s Gaol of Newgate for the City and County of Bristol for Felony and other Misdemeanours


Stephen Martin

Committed 15 Mar 1783

Gaol Value 1s

By the Worshipful Thomas Harris Esq. Alderman charged on the Oath with having feloniously stolen one pair of Boots value nine shillings and one pair of steel spurs of the value of sixpence at the Parish of Saint Mary, Redcliff within this City and County.

Sworn before me, Thomas Harris, Henry Pain, Robert Harman, Thomas Winton, said Henry Payne in 40 pounds to prosecute said Robert Harman and Thomas Winton, 20 pounds each to give evidence at the next sessions.

Acknowledged before me


28th April 1783: Sentenced to 7 years transportation to America6

Opening of Easter Sessions, Monday, April 28th 1783

1st entry;

po: se Guilty value 1s

For feloniously stealing the goods of Henry Payne, Stephen Martin value 10s to be transported to America for seven years.

2nd entry;

The names of this Jury […] […] King and Stephen Martin for Felony …

po: se Guilty value 1s

Stephen Martin for feloniously stealing the goods of Elizabeth Randall*, Widow, value 40s, see above


3rd May 1783: Newspaper report on Bristol Quarter Sessions7

At the Quarter Sessions held on Monday last at the Guildhall, in this city, the following prisoners were tried, viz.

“Stephen Martin, for stealing a cane and a pair of boots and spurs; all to be transported for seven years.”

Note: The inclusion of the cane in this article appears to be a mistake, the cane did not appear in any of the court or subsequent conviction reports.

1785: Stephen aged 36 was held on the Censor Hulk awaiting transportation8

No. 39
Name: Stephen Martin
Age: 36
When and Where Convicted: Bristol, 23 April 1783
Sentence: America, 7years

Due to the Revolutionary War in America (1775–1783), transportation halted; when it resumed in 1887, most convicts would be transported to NSW, Australia. This may explain why Stephen spent the best part of 5 years in prison before he was finally transported.

13th May 1787: The Alexander sets sail for NSW

Stephen was assigned to the First Fleet Convict transport the Alexander.

In early 1787, convicts at Woolwich Docks were loaded onto the Alexander. The convicts came both from prison hulks on the Thames and directly from Newgate Prison. The ship then sailed to Portsmouth alongside Lady Penrhyn to meet the remainder of the Fleet.

Before Alexander left Portsmouth, a fever broke out on board that killed 16 men9. It left Portsmouth on 13 May 1787, carrying 195 male convicts. Fifteen more convicts died on the journey, the most for any ship in the fleet. The fever’s cause was likely inadequate management of the bilge, as reported by John White, the surgeon aboard HMS Sirius in June 1787.

“The illness complained of was wholly occasioned by the bilge water which had by some means or other risen to so great a height that the panels of the cabin and the buttons on the clothes of the officers were turned nearly black by the noxious effluvia. When the hatches were taken off, the stench was so powerful it was scarcely possible to stand over them.”10

Complaints by Surgeons White and Balmain to First Fleet Captain Arthur Phillip led to regular pumping of Alexander’s bilge thereafter, with a corresponding improvement in convict health11

Oct 1887: Attempted Mutiny aboard the Alexander

In October 1787, Duncan Sinclair, the ship’s master, thwarted an attempted mutiny aboard the vessel.

A band of five convicts and several able seamen had armed themselves with iron bars, intending to overpower the guard and sail the vessel to the nearest landfall. Sinclair, aware of the plot through an informant, had crew and convicts locked below decks while the conspirators were identified.

One of the mutineers was Philip Farrell; a second mutineer was Thomas Griffiths. Sinclair transferred them to Sirius, where they were flogged, and then sent aboard Prince of Wales for the remainder of the voyage to New South Wales12. Sinclair transferred his informant to Scarborough for the informant’s own protection13.

26th Jan 1788: The Alexander arrives in NSW

20 Feb 1789: Stephen and another convict each receive twenty-five lashes for neglecting their work14.

28 Nov 1789:

Together with John Russell, Stephen was charged again for stealing a pair of shoes, buckles, a loaf of bread, and a piece of beef. The pair faced a hearing before the Justice of Peace at Rosehill and were summarily sentenced.

 “To repay each two pounds of flour, one pound a week, and Martin to receive fifty lashes’15.

5th Mar 1790: Transported to Norfolk Island aboard the HMS Sirius

14th Mar 1790: Norfolk Island

Stephen was among 161 convicts transported to Norfolk Island in 1790 aboard the HMS Sirius; 2 days after disembarking at Cascade Bay, the Sirius was shipwrecked on a reef while unloading stores.

5th Nov 1791: Marriage to Hannah Peeling16

Date of Marriage: 5th Nov 1791
Place of Marriage: Norfolk Island, NSW, Australia
Groom: Stephen Martin
Bride: Hannah Peeling
Sentence: America, 7years
Minister: Rev. Richard Johnson

1791: Enlisted into the NSW Corps17

1792: Discharged from the NSW Corps18

12th Nov 1793: Stephen and Hannah’s daughter Mary is born19

Surname: Peeling
Date of Birth 12th Nov 1793
Place of Birth Norfolk Island, NSW, Australia
Father: Stephen Martin
Mother: Hannah Peeling
Chaplain: Rev. Fulton

1796: Settlers Blocks on Norfolk Island20

The map of Settlers Blocks on Norfolk Island clearly shows the following lots held by Stephen in 1796; Lot 10: 60 Acres, Lot 21: 12 Acres

17th Aug 1799: Hannah dies21

It is unknown what happened to Hannah or why she was in Sydney at her death. Only her burial record survives to prove that she was buried in the Old Sydney Burial Ground, NSW.

Hannah’s burial record gives her surname as Pealing, not Martin.

There is no evidence to suggest that Stephen ever remarried or had any more children after Hannah’s death.

15th May 1808: Stephen and daughter Mary leave Norfolk Island aboard the Estramina

Although the particulars of Stephen’s pardon have not been sourced, it is known that he left the Island as a free man.

5th Jun 1808: Stephen and daughter Mary arrive in Hobart22

Departure Port: Norfolk Island, NSW, Australia
Arrival Date: 5th Jun 1808
Ship: Estramina

List of Settlers who embarked on board the Estramina Schooner for the Derwent River

Name: Stephen Martin
Acres: Cleared: 13
  Not cleared: 2
Number in family: Wife: Nil
  Children: 1
  Servants: Nil
Convict Class: 3

1811: Hobart Town Muster23

Name: Stephen Martin
By what ship arrived: 5th Jun 1808
Ship: Alexander
When and where convicted: March 1783 Bristol
Sentence: 7 years
Remarks: At Hobart Town

20th Sep 1813: Land grant in Melville, Tasmania24,25

As part of the Norfolk Island re-settlement program, all landholders were given a land grant in Van Diemen’s Land as an incentive to re-locate.

The following is the Deed for Stephen’s grant located in the district of Melville located on the Derwent River just a short distance from current day Bridgewater;

Van Diemen’s Land

Unto Stephen Martin his Heirs and Assigns to have and to hold forever, thirty-three Acres of land lying and situate in the District of Melville, Van Diemen’s Land. Bounded on the Westside by ten chains wide of unappropriated ground dividing it from Cox’s farm bearing north, twenty degrees east, forty chains. On the Eastside by Devereaux’s farm bearing South, twenty degrees West, thirty-two chains, fifty links to the small bay. And on the Southside by that bay being part of the Derwent River.

Conditioned and reserving to Government the right to make a public road through the same and reserving for the use of the Crown such timber may be deemed fit for naval purposes.

Quit rent, one shilling

In testimony to this 20th day of September 1813.

Signed “L. Macquarie” [Signature]

Witnessed by: H. ?. Antill, ?. W Whalan

Before signing, it is inserted that these clauses in this grant that prescribe the selling, alienating, cultivating, and clearing thereof are rescinded. This grant is in compensation for land relinquished by the grantee Norfolk Island.

Signed by ?. ? Campbell

14th Feb 1818: Public Notice regarding Land Grants26

The under-mentioned Grants of Land are now lying at the Acting Deputy General’s Office for Delivery on the fees being paid which are due thereon.

Stephen Martin, 33 acres, £1, 15s, 1d 

1822: Muster27, 28

Provided Stephen was living in Melville at the time of Muster, he would have reported to Chief District Constable Kimberly’s residence in Bagdad on the 30th of Oct 1822.

2nd Nov 1822: Charged with sheep stealing29

Joseph Barnsley, Stephen Martin, free men, and Thomas Starkey, Jacob Rogers, Thomas White, and John Langford, convicts, were fully committed for trial before a Court of Criminal Jurisdiction, charged with stealing sheep, the property of Mr. David Lord30.

22nd Feb 1823: Not guilty of sheep stealing31

In the Court of Criminal Jurisdiction:


Thomas Starkey*, Job Rogers*, James Smith, Joseph Barnsley, Thomas White, Stephen Martin, and John Langford, were charged with stealing, at the Blue Hills, on the 9th of September last, 200 sheep, the property of Mr. David Lord. In other information, Starkey and Rogers were charged with killing the sheep in question, and the other prisoners with aiding and assisting in the commission of the offense and receiving the said sheep, knowing the same to have been feloniously stolen.

On behalf of the prosecution, the first witness called was William Johnson, one of the prosecutor’s shepherds, whose evidence was corroborated by that of the other, who jointly had charge of the stolen flock.

John Swift, the next witness, deposed, that he had charge of his master’s flock, consisting of 1320 sheep, which he counted about once every fortnight or three weeks so that a return thereof might be made to his master. That on the 9th of September, a great many of the sheep from his flock were found missing, and amongst the number some remarkable ones, well known to him; that shortly after the sheep were missed, this and the last witness went together in search of those stolen for four or five days, in the neighbourhood of the run; that, after thus making every enquiry amongst the different flocks in the neighbourhood, they fell in with the tracks of a large number of sheep, as well as the footsteps of two men, who of course were presumed to have driven them in a direction through the bush; where the sheep were not likely to have taken the same run. They traced these tracks to a place by the Big Lagoon, where it appeared there had been a lamb recently slaughtered; they the next day followed the tracks on as far as the Little Lovely Banks, where they found a yard in the bush; hence they continued their search, still keeping up with the tracks, till they came near to Bagdad. They here found another yard, to which the tracks were found to lead.

The footsteps of the two men were in many parts of the way very plain. They discovered that one of the parties had worn right and left shoes, turning the right foot inward a good deal, and treading on the outside of the shoe; & that the other had four nails very distinctly in the centre of the heel of one of his shoes. After being a short time at the yard, not more than a mile distant from the house of the prisoner Smith, Starkey and Rogers came up to it (just as the witnesses were leaving the yard), from towards Bagdad, to the witnesses from a valley. The two prisoners challenged the witnesses with being bushrangers; but, upon their explaining that they had been looking after sheep, and some general conversation, Starkey stated that he had been looking for a bullock and that Rogers had been with him; the latter, however, enquired and seemed very desirous of knowing, whether the prisoners had been in that direction, where the yard had just been found, but which the witnesses denied.

It was soon discovered by the witness and his companion that the footsteps of Starkey & Rogers corresponded exactly in every particular with those of the two men which they had followed up all along to the last yard, from within a mile of, and on the very border of, Mr. Lord’s run, at the Blue Hills. The two prisoners were in consequence suspected of having been the persons who had stolen the sheep; particularly so, as many sheep, it had been found, had been shortly before slaughtered in the yard; fires, it appeared, having also been made to burn the skins, offal, &c. to prevent discovery. The witnesses watched the prisoners too, or very near to, a house about three-quarters of a mile from the yard.

There was blood smeared and sheep wool on Roger’s jacket and trousers, and some wool also on Starkey, although not near so much as on Rogers. The next day the witnesses, with a constable (Worrall), who wholly corroborated their evidence, went again to the yard, and following the track, found it led down a steep hill. The footsteps then were of two or three men, and also of a horse. At the foot of the hill, there was the track of a horse and cart clearly backwards and forwards; following these tracks, they were led immediately to Smith’s house at Bagdad, in which they, the next day, (Kimberly having joined them) found Smith and Barnsley. In an inner room of the house, two casks of salted mutton put up apparently in rather a dirty manner, and with some grass about it, were found. The constables examined the tracks shown by the shepherds before and at the yard. They swore they corresponded exactly with the prints of Starkey and Roger’s steps, which were afterwards observed, & upon finding the mutton, they (Smith and Starkey) were immediately apprehended. When Rogers was taken, he had on the same jacket and trousers, with smears of blood evidently on them,  but his right shoe had been pieced (as he acknowledged, the day before), & Starkey, as Swift swore and said at the time, had changed his shoes: the constables found no other shoes however at Starkey’s.

On the following day, a constable, accompanied with the 2 stock keepers, then went to the farm of the prisoner White, in whose flock, which, grazing out on the grounds, was then in charge of his shepherd, the prisoner Martin. On looking into the flock and being driven into the yard, 27 of Mr. Lord’s sheep were picked. These sheep were not, however, in any way disfigured in their original brand marks, though it could not be proved by the evidence, for or against the prisoners, how they came in the flock. White and Martin indeed had at first declared; they had no strange sheep in the flock. One of these sheep was owned by the other prisoner, Langford, a servant of White, who, as was proved in evidence, had got some 2 years before, of a settler, and had put them in White’s flock to keep. This particular sheep’s identity was sworn to very positively by Swift, and, not quite so positively, by two witnesses produced on the part of Langford, who had inspected it when taken possession of by Mr. Lord’s servants.

The constables stated the general circumstances already alluded to and that the casks contained mutton in excellent condition, counting out 22 hind legs.

A witness was then called (Mawle), who acted as a shepherd to Smith, & swore, that while he was at work in the front of the house about some potatoes, he saw Smith go with his cart, a couple of days before and on two days running, and on its return, saw, after some wood was taken off the top, some carcasses of sheep carried into the house by Smith and Barnsley, which were salted on the same night, and put into the casks, where the constables found it. That the sheep Smith had (about twenty) were feeble, not fit to kill, and that he left the sheep when Smith was apprehended. The case for the prosecution then closed.

Several witnesses, on behalf of some of the prisoners, were then examined, whose evidence went to prove an alibi, on the part of Starkey, Smith, and of White, at the time of the robbery; that Smith had bought 17 sheep of one Maskery [Thomas Maskery*], now committed also for sheep stealing; and that Smith had killed 6 or 7 sheep just before the mutton was found, which was allowed to be however very poor, & sheep hardly fit to kill. When the evidence for the prisoners had closed, the Court having sat from 10 to 7 o’clock in the evening upon the case, the Court adjourned till the next morning, Tuesday at 10 o’clock.

When The Learned Judge (WYLDE), on the opening of the Court, generally proceeded to sum up the case; observing, that this was one of those, circumstantial cases which sometimes proved one of most satisfactory proof if the various facts failed not to link the whole chain of facts so found sufficiently conclusive for conviction. In respect of the evidence, adduced in support of the information, the Court could not but observe the plain and clear manner, in which the servants of the prosecutor had given their testimony; While tracks also of the men, with those of the sheep, so positively sworn to, formed solid support of the case against two of the prisoners. 

If the Court believed the witnesses for the defence, to be as worthy of credit as those for the prosecution, it might, as to some of the prisoners, then appear one of those conflicting cases, which arose from contradictory variance in opposition of evidence. The defence set up by the prisoners generally, mainly resolved itself into proofs of alibis; a sort of defence of which this and every Court would require clear and satisfactory kind of evidence. We are unable to follow the remarks of the Honourable the Judge Advocate, who also went through the whole of the evidence given upon the case; observing, in the way, that it was incumbent on the prisoners to account as to how they got the property into their possession, as the Law would hold them guilty, upon proof of such goods having been lost, in the manner proved to have been feloniously obtained by them, in whose possession they were so afterward found until the contrary be shown. The Judge, in going through the evidence on the part of the prisoners’ defence, remarked upon points therein appearing so highly uncertain, contradictory, and conflicting; while it was only for the Court to determine, whether, under all the circumstances of the very long enquiry the case had undergone, they were satisfied upon the proof or otherwise, in respect of the case, as made out against all and each of the prisoners. His Honour, in close, (his summing up having taken an hour and a half) remarking, that he was sure, after the very patient and scrutinizing manner in which the Members had attended to this long investigation, they would come to that impartial and deliberate determination which would be perfectly reconcilable with the justice of the case, as made out in proof, as against the prisoners generally and individually.

The Court retired for about half an hour and returned with the following verdict: Starkey and Rogers, Guilty of stealing the sheep; Smith and Barnsley, Guilty of aiding & assisting in the same (to be brought up on a future day for sentence); and White, Martin, and Langford, Not Guilty.

In the last case, John Donaldson, who appeared and was examined as a witness for the prisoner Smith, was committed for gross prevarication & perjury in the course.

*Starkey, Rogers and Maskery received the death penalty.

29th Mar 1823: Stephen had not yet collected his land grant32

Deputy Surveyor General’s Office

Hobart Town, March 27, 1823

Grants to the under-mentioned  persons have been a length of time laying for delivery at the this office; It is hereby notified, if they are not applied for and taken up within one month from this date, the said grants will consequently be considered as relinquished, and returned to the headquarters. 

Stephen Martin, 30 acres

G.W. Evans, Deputy Surveyor General

1827: Victim of Theft33, 34

“Jane the wife of Thomas Davis, was acquitted of stealing money from the person of Stephen Martin, an old man.”

Abt. Oct 1829: Death

Green Ponds, Tasmania

Date of death was calculated form Stephen’s burial record

29th Oct 1829: Burial35

Burials in the Parish of New Norfolk in the County of Buckingham in the year 1829

Stephen Martin, 81, farmer of Green Ponds, Tasmania, was buried on the 29th Oct 1829 at the St Matthews Anglican Cemetery in New Norfolk, Tasmania

There is no headstone for Stephen, however, his name and burial date have been included on the memorial wall which contains the names of all who were buried there.


  1. Bristol Archives, FCJQS-P-68 frames 38-39
  2. Bristol Archives, FCJQS-P-65 frames 42&45 [calendar of prisoners, 1780]
  3. Bristol Archives, JQS/P/? 1781, 57
  4. Bristol Archives, JQS/P/79
  5. Bristol Archives, FCJQS-P-79 frames 38-39 calendar of prisoners 1783 frame 29
  6. Bristol Archives, FCJQS/P/84, Quarter Sessions Record, Names 30, 31, 1783, 28 April
  7. Bristol Archives, Bonner and Middleton’s Bristol Journal 1782-83 Vol. IX, No. 456, Saturday, 3 May 1783
  8. National Library of Australia,
  9. 1788, The Brutal Truth of the First Fleet, David Hill
  10. (1757/8-1832) Journal of a Voyage to New South Wales, John White,
  11. 1788: The Brutal Truth of the First Fleet, David Hill
  12. The Convict Ships, Bateson, Charles (1969)
  13. ibid
  14. From Convicts to Settlers, Irene Schaffer
  15. Bench of Magistrates Index 1788-1820, Item No: [SZ765] | Page No: 241 | COD: COD 17 | Reel No: 654 | Date: 28-11-1789,
  16. Norfolk Island Rev. Fulton Baptisms, Burials and Marriages 1801-1806, Cathy Dunn
  17. NSW Corps: A colonial Regiment: New Sources Relating to the New South Wales Corps, 1789-1810, Pamela Statham
  18. ibid
  19. Norfolk Island Rev. Fulton Baptisms, Burials and Marriages 1801-1806, Cathy Dunn
  20. National Library of Australia,
  21. St Phillips Church parish Register Vol 2, C/E burials 1787 to 1831
  22. Tasmanian Archives, CSO1/1/177, Film No. Z1794
  23. The National Archives, HO 10/42,
  24. Tasmanian Archives, LSD354/1/2, Film No. Z1200,$init=LSD354-1-2p74jpg
  25. Tasmanian Archives, AF396/1/235,
  26. The Hobart Town Gazette and Southern Reporter (Tas.: 1816 – 1821), 14 February 1818: 1
  27. The National Archives, HO 10/18
  28. Hobart Town Gazette and Van Diemen’s Land Advertiser (Tas. : 1821 – 1825), 28 September 1822,
  29. Hobart Town Gazette and Van Diemen’s Land Advertiser (Tas.: 1821 – 1825), 9 November 1822,
  30. Lord, David (1785–1847), Australian Dictionary of Biography, National Centre of Biography, Australian National University, Susan Allen,
  31. Hobart Town Gazette and Van Diemen’s Land Advertiser (Tas.: 1821 – 1825), 22 February 1823: 2,
  32. Hobart Town Gazette and Van Diemen’s Land Advertiser (Tas: 1821 – 1825), 29 March 1823: 1,
  33. The Hobart Town Courier (Tas. : 1827 – 1839), 1 December 1827: 1,
  34. Tasmanian Archives,
  35. Tasmanian Archives, RGD34/1/1 no 37, Film no: 2043